Answers to the hottest modern logistics and commod

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Answer to questions about modern logistics and commodity packaging (10

. 10 what are the insect prevention technologies?

answer: there are mainly the following two kinds:

(1) place insect repellents - that is, put drugs with certain toxicity and smell in the packaging, and use the volatile gas of drugs in the packaging to kill and drive away all kinds of pests. Commonly used insect repellents include tea, para dichlorobenzene, camphor, etc

(2) adopt special packaging - commonly used vacuum packaging, inflatable packaging, deoxygenation packaging and other technologies, so that pests have no living environment, so as to prevent pests. 11 what is inflatable packaging

answer: inflatable packaging is a packaging technology method that uses inert gases such as carbon dioxide or nitrogen to replace the air in the packaging container, so it is also called gas replacement packaging. According to the aerobic metabolism characteristics of aerobic microorganisms, this packaging method changes the composition of gas in sealed packaging containers, reduces the concentration of oxygen, inhibits the physiological activities of microorganisms, enzyme activities and the respiratory intensity of fresh goods, and achieves the purposes of mold prevention, corrosion prevention and freshness preservation

12 what is deoxygenation packaging

answer: deoxidation packaging is a new deoxidization packaging method following vacuum packaging and inflatable packaging. Deoxidation packaging is to use deoxidizer that can react with oxygen in a sealed packaging container, so as to remove the oxygen in the packaging container, so as to achieve the purpose of protecting the contents. Deoxygenation packaging method is applicable to some items that are particularly sensitive to oxygen, and is used in food packaging where even a small amount of oxygen will cause the quality to deteriorate

13 what is vacuum packaging

answer: vacuum packaging is a kind of packaging method in which items are put into airtight containers and vacuum is pumped before the containers are sealed, so that there is basically no air in the sealed containers. Vacuum packaging can be used for general meat products, grain processing products and some goods that are easy to oxidize and deteriorate. Vacuum packaging can not only avoid or reduce fat oxidation, but also inhibit the growth of some molds and bacteria. At the same time, when it is heated and sterilized, because the gas inside the container has been eliminated, the heat conduction is accelerated, the high-temperature sterilization efficiency is improved, and the cracking of the packaging container due to the expansion of the gas during heating and sterilization is avoided

14 what are the categories of dangerous goods according to their different properties

answer: China's transportation and public security departments divide dangerous goods into ten categories: explosive goods, oxidants, compressed and liquefied gases, self igniting goods, goods that burn in water, flammable liquids, flammable solids, toxic goods, corrosive goods, radioactive goods, etc. Some goods have more than two dangerous properties at the same time

15 what are the major categories of dangerous goods in the international maritime transport code (IMDG) formulated by the International Maritime Organization (IMO) under the United Nations

answer: the "international maritime dangerous code" divides dangerous goods into nine categories: explosives, compressed, liquefied or pressurized dissolved gases, flammable liquids, flammable solids, substances prone to spontaneous combustion, substances that emit flammable gases in contact with water, oxidants and organic peroxides, toxic and combustible substances, radioactive substances, corrosive substances, miscellaneous dangerous substances and articles, Each major category is subdivided into several sub categories (the sub categories are omitted here)

16 what should be paid attention to when packaging dangerous goods

answer: we should pay attention to the following problems:

(1) the packaging of toxic goods should be clearly marked with toxic signs. The main measure of anti-virus is that the package is tight and airtight. For example, potassium dichromate (potassium jarosite) and sodium dichromate (sodium jarosite), which are red and transparent crystals, are toxic. They should be packed in solid iron drums, and the barrel mouth should be tight without leakage. The thickness of the iron plate for barrel making should not be less than 1.2 mm. Commodities such as organic pesticides should be put into asphalt gunny bags with tight seams. If it is packed in plastic bags or asphalt paper bags, it should be packed in gunny bags or cloth bags. Zinc phosphide, which is used as a rodenticide, is highly toxic. It should be tightly sealed in plastic bags and then put into a wooden box. The box is padded with two layers of kraft paper, moisture-proof paper or plastic film to isolate it from the outside world

(2) for corrosive goods, attention should be paid to prevent chemical changes in the materials of goods and packaging containers. Metal packaging containers should be painted on the container wall to prevent the corrosion of corrosive goods to the container. For example, the inner wall of the iron bucket for packaging synthetic fatty acids should be coated with an acid resistant protective layer to prevent the iron bucket from being corroded by the commodity, so that the commodity will also deteriorate. Another example is hydrofluoric acid, an inorganic acid corrosive substance, which is highly toxic and can corrode glass. Instead of using glass bottles as packaging containers, it should be put into metal barrels or plastic barrels, but then into wooden cases. Formic acid is volatile and its gas is corrosive. It should be put into a good acid resistant jar, glass bottle or plastic bucket, sealed tightly, and then put into a solid wooden box or metal bucket

(3) for the packaging of yellow phosphorus and other goods prone to spontaneous combustion, it is advisable to put them into an iron bucket with a wall thickness of not less than 1 mm. The inner wall of the bucket must be coated with an acid resistant protective layer. The bucket is filled with water, and the water surface is submerged in the goods. The bucket mouth is tightly closed, and the net weight of the bucket is not more than 50 kg. In addition, when encountering water, articles that cause combustion, such as calcium carbide, decompose and produce flammable acetylene gas when encountering water. They should be packed in strong iron drums, and the barrels should be filled with nitrogen. If the barrel is not filled with nitrogen, the vent piston should be installed

(4) for inflammable and explosive goods, such as those with strong oxidizability, which will explode in the presence of trace impurities or when heated, the effective method of explosion proof packaging is to use plastic barrels for packaging, and then put the plastic barrels into iron barrels or wooden cases, with a net weight of no more than 50 kg each, and there should be a safety valve for automatic deflation, which can automatically deflate when the barrel reaches a certain gas pressure

(5) the packaging of dangerous goods must be reported to the commodity inspection department for inspection before use, because the packaging of dangerous goods belongs to the scope of legal inspection. The commodity inspection department shall carry out different tests on leakage, hydraulic pressure, falling and accumulation according to the nature of dangerous goods, packaging types and packaging materials. The packaging performance appraisal certificate and use certificate shall be issued only after they are qualified

(6) for dangerous goods, warning signs such as toxic, flammable and explosive shall be printed or pasted on their inner and outer packages. This is why. If international transportation is carried out, the danger signs specifying different dangerous properties specified in the "international danger code" shall also be pasted

17 what signs should be printed or pasted on the outer package of goods in international logistics

answer: generally, shipping marks and indicative marks should be printed or pasted. For dangerous goods, warning marks should also be affixed on the outer package. For goods requiring cross-border distribution, multidimensional barcode should also be pasted on the transportation package (see question 4.32 for details)

. 18 what is "green packaging"

answer: "green packaging" refers to commodity packaging that will not cause environmental pollution or deterioration. At present, countries around the world are increasingly aware of environmental protection, especially some economically developed countries, out of their attention to environmental protection, have also included packaging that is easy to cause environmental pollution in the list of import restrictions, which has become one of the means of non-tariff barriers. For example, Germany and Italy prohibit the import of goods using PVC as packaging materials

19 what are the "3R" and "1D" principles of "green packaging"

answer: "3R" principle refers to reduce, reuse and recycle. This was put forward by industrial countries in the 1980s. In the 1990s, the principle of "1D" (degradable) was put forward, which means that packaging materials should be "degradable". According to the above principles, "green packaging" should meet the requirements of saving materials, resources and energy, degradable waste, not polluting the environment, and harmless to human health

. 20 what is circulation processing

answer: circulation processing is a special processing form of commodities in circulation. It is the processing of commodities in the process of commodities from production to consumption, in order to promote sales, maintain product quality and improve logistics efficiency, so that commodities change physically, chemically or in shape, so as to meet the diversified needs of consumers and improve the added value of commodities

21 please give some examples of the above question

answer: here are some examples:

(1) common food circulation and processing include:

① freezing of fish, meat and poultry

② raw cheese is cool to refrigerate

③ sterilization and shaking of fresh milk

④ quick freezing and vacuum packaging of fresh food and vegetables

⑤ automatic packaging of grain

(2) common circulation and processing of consumer goods are:

① adding signs, imprinting trademarks and pasting price tags on clothing

② furniture assembly

③ installation of household appliances

④ carpet splicing

(3) common circulation processing of means of production:

① cutting of steel plate

② flatten the steel sheet coil

③ cut off the formed steel

22 what is the difference between "circulation processing" and "production processing"

answer: there are some differences:

(1) from the perspective of different processing objects: the objects of circulation processing are commodities entering the circulation field; The object of production and processing is not the final goods, but raw materials, spare parts and semi-finished products

(2) from the depth of processing: circulation processing is mostly simple processing, which is an auxiliary and supplement to production processing; The production and processing are more complex

(3) from the different purposes of processing: the purpose of production and processing is to create value and use value; The purpose of circulation processing is to improve the use value of commodities and improve their value without major changes to the original commodities

(4) from the perspective of organizational processors, the organizers of circulation processing are commercial enterprises or logistics enterprises engaged in circulation work; The organizer of production and processing is the production enterprise

. What is the position of circulation processing in modern logistics to make such materials reach the optimal nature

answer: Although the status of circulation processing in modern logistics cannot be compared with the main functional elements such as transportation and warehousing, which allow more domestic enterprises to independently develop and produce high-end new chemical materials to enter the market as soon as possible, it can play a role that transportation, warehousing and other main elements cannot play. Circulation processing is a processing method with low input and high output, which often solves big problems through this simple processing. Practice has proved that some circulation processing can make the grade of goods jump and fully realize its value by changing the decoration, and some circulation processing can increase the utilization rate of products by 20% - 50% at a draught. Therefore, circulation processing is an important profit source for logistics enterprises. Its position in logistics is essential and belongs to the scope of value-added services (see Figure 1.3 in title 1.10 of this book)

24 What are the specific functions of circulation processing

answer: it is mainly reflected in the following aspects:

(1) improve the utilization rate of raw materials - use circulation processing to transport simple specification products directly from the manufacturer, and carry out centralized blanking according to the requirements of the user department. For example, the steel plate is sheared and cut; Steel bar or round steel is cut into blank; Wood is processed into boards and squares of various lengths and sizes. Centralized cutting can optimize materials and use them, make small materials widely used, and reasonably cut, which has a good technical and economic effect. For another example, Beijing, Jinan, Dandong and other cities have circulated and processed flat glass (centralized cutting and open sheet supply), which has increased the utilization rate of glass from 60% to 85% - 95%

(2) carry out primary processing to facilitate users - for units with small consumption or temporary needs, due to the lack of the ability to carry out efficient primary processing, relying on circulation processing can save these units from entering

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