The most popular recycling trends of foreign plast

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Recycling trends of plastic food packaging materials abroad (II)

(1) Germany is the most active country in favor of recycling waste, especially under extreme conditions. Some of its policies and propositions often affect the corresponding decisions of the European community, and it is also the first country to implement the recycling of waste plastics. The waste disposal law was enacted in 1986. In 1994, the circular economy waste treatment law was officially promulgated, which stipulated that the waste treatment work was changed from the responsibility of the local government to the obligation of product manufacturers and sellers. In 1991, a decree on packaging waste was formulated specifically for packaging materials. On this basis, in 1993, the disposal of packaging waste from plastic containers was transferred from local administrative agencies to plastic producers and distributors. The so-called "recycling economy" unique to Germany includes the following three aspects:

a. first of all, we should try to avoid the generation of waste. For example, the product design should consider reducing the waste after use, and the waste generated in the production process can be digested and reused in the processing process

b. in case of unavoidable waste, various forms of effective recycling shall be adopted, such as chemical method, thermal method, material method, etc

c. those who cannot be effectively recycled will be punished

in addition, different from other countries, Germany does not legally recognize the recycling method of burning waste plastics to use its heat energy. Therefore, it has aroused strong opposition from many sides. It is estimated that some changes will be made in the future in consideration of economy and suitability

Germany pays special attention to the direct recycling and reuse of packaging materials. For example, according to the packaging waste law, the best way to prevent the generation of waste packaging materials is to promote repeated use, avoid one-time use, and stipulate that the market share of reusable containers should reach more than 72%. If it does not reach 72%, a deposit shall be fined for the part discarded after use. The general deposit (the so-called "bottle charge") is the commodity value. Another domestic enterprise focusing on high-performance nylon is 35%-45% of Dongguan yipuwan nylon Technology Co., Ltd., which was established in 2004. For example, the deposit for mineral water worth 2.8 marks is 1 mark. According to the statistics of 1996, the reuse rate was 72.03%, reaching the predetermined goal. In addition, the same regulations are also implemented for many other containers that can be reused for many times like glass bottles and plastic containers

the high deposit system is the key to the reuse of German packaging containers. The author once saw a little story that proved that the Germans were serious. It is said that a German student studying in a neighboring country brought a box of beer to his classmates when he returned home because his classmates praised German beer. After drinking, he took all the empty bottles back to Germany. The classmate asked him why he had to suffer? The answer is used to it. In fact, I think that for a student, the high bottle charge may be one of the main reasons for his painstaking efforts

this provision is no exception in foreign trade. Germany also requires that waste containers be returned to exporting countries for imported beverages and other commodities. To achieve this, it is also the way to charge a deposit. For example, in 1986, Coca Cola Germany adopted 15 liter reusable PET bottles. After the federal government of Germany knew about it, it immediately formulated the regulations on deposit for plastic bottles to implement the obligation of recycling PET bottles to beverage dealers. At present, there is no pet bottle without deposit in the circulation field in Germany. However, because Germans believe that bottled mineral water with pet will make water sour, most of them still use traditional glass bottles, so pet consumption is small. For example, in 1996, it was only 23000 tons, which is only a fraction of 97000 tons in France and 144000 tons in Britain. But in other words, it can also be said that pet does not have much room for development in Deschamps in the future. The other is the PC container. Although the price is higher than that of pet, it is favored by the environmental protection department because it has the advantages of light weight, heat resistance and no smell. In particular, because it can be recycled for many times (Times), it is not easy to produce wastes like glass bottles and paper containers, which cause a serious burden on the environment. Although the air tightness of PE material is low, the content food is not suitable for long-term storage, so the current use is not too large, accounting for only about 7% of PC containers in Germany (about 1400 tons per year). It is mainly used for beverage packaging for students. However, due to its environmental protection advantages of high-frequency reuse, its promotion prospect is promising

(2) the gross profit margin of Dutch

Dutch paper is still high at present. The development prospect of packaging testing instruments is promising. The municipal, town and village administrative agencies were responsible for the waste recycling in Lanzhou. All the collected waste plastic wastes were incinerated. This is due to the high cost of centralized collection and the low demand for recycled materials. However, at present, with the increasing voice of the whole society for the effective use of resources, a "fuel burning of waste plastics" project with an annual treatment capacity of 250000 tons involving one-half of the country and 8million people is being implemented. This plan not only aims at packaging waste, but also includes the treatment of all waste plastics

Coca Cola Netherlands said that if the plan of "burning waste plastics by gas" is feasible, it plans to replace the current recycling method with disposable pet bottles. This move has attracted the attention of the industry

Dutch Stichting Verpakking en milieu (SVM) for short is a non-governmental organization that collects, selects, promotes and applies waste recycling system. It is composed of more than 200 manufacturers and companies related to packaging materials. LCA (life cycle analysis) on the ecological cycle analysis of packaging materials pointed out that recycled containers may not be superior to certain containers in terms of environmental protection. This view is quite different from Germany's preference for recycling and reuse. They believe that when recycling and reuse is adopted, if the recycling means used and the energy and loss consumed in the cleaning process are accurately considered, the LCA results are very different from the wishes. However, like Germany, reusable PC containers are still very popular in the Netherlands, and about half of the milk bottles are canned in PC bottles

(3) France

the author is limited to the information at hand, and the specific situation is not very clear. It is reported that in December1997, it was stipulated that the use period of non-alcoholic beverages packaged in PET bottles with recycled materials inside shall not exceed 2 years

3 the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has not yet formulated special regulations on the use of recycled plastics as food packaging. However, when dealing with the safety and health issues that should be paid attention to when using recycled plastics as food packaging, the following informal control requirements are generally referred to, In accordance with the above control requirements, both pins of recycled plastics for the use of recycled plastics in food packaging chemistry considerations and guidance on information to be submitted with a request for food contact use of recycled plastics issued in may1992, Conduct on-site review on some specific issues. When it is found that there is no problem after examination, it will send an informal notice to the parties in the form of no objection letter (NOL for short). From february1990, the first "Nol" was issued to PS to july1998, and 52 "Nol" have been issued so far. FDA plans to learn from the experience of "Nol" and accelerate the formulation of corresponding regulations for the use of recycled plastics. It is estimated that the regulations will be issued soon

the main contents of FDA review are as follows:

(1) source: the "resume" of recycled plastics from recycling to recycling

(2) control: provide cleaning methods and proof of no pollution

(3) conditions: service conditions of recycled plastics, such as the type of food, temperature and contact time

to sum up, although developed countries such as Europe, America and Japan still have great differences in policies, regulations, treatment methods and enthusiasm on the recycling of waste plastics, especially waste plastics used for food packaging, they have one thing in common, that is, they pay considerable attention to the treatment, recycling and utilization of plastic wastes, especially a large number of food plastic packaging wastes, Great progress has been made in the research of policies and regulations, recycling technology, determination and measurement of safety and health indicators and specific implementation measures. On the contrary, can we get some inspiration and reference from the current situation of waste plastics, especially waste food plastic packaging, the establishment and improvement of relevant laws and regulations, the research on recycling technology and the enhancement of the people's awareness of environmental protection in China

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